Pleased with Abu Bakr?

1st question:
One innovator made the claim that Fatimah (a.) had forgiven Abu Bakr before her death and was satisfied with him. The following sources were mentioned: Sharh Nahj Al-Balaghah of Ibn Abi Al-Hadid, Volume 1 page 57 and Sharh Nahj Al-Balaghah of Ibn Al-Maitham Al-Bahrani, Volume 5 page 507. Are these really reports that reached the lovers of the Ahl-ul-Bait (a.)?
Answer:
The first statement is one of the reports which reached the followers of the false imams and therefore has no value.
Abd-ul-Hamid Ibn Abi Al-Hadid reports from Ash-Sha’bi that Abu Bakr asked a question and said: “Where is Az-Zubair?” They said: “With Ali and he already pulled the sword.” So he said: “Arise, O Umar, arise, O Khalid Ibn Al-Walid!” And they set out until they came to them. When they arrived, Umar came in and Khalid went to the door of the house from outside.” Umar said to Az-Zubair: “What is this sword?” He said: “We take the oath of allegiance to Ali!” Umar seized it and struck it against a stone which broke and then took Az-Zubair’s hand to pull at it and he said: “O Khalid, seize it!” Then he said to Ali (a.): “Arise and take the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr!” But he hesitated and was taken into custody. He took his hand and said: “Rise up! But he refused to get up and he dragged him just like Az-Zubair and brought him out. Fatimah (a.) saw how he dealt with them and went to the door of the house and said: “O Abu Bakr, how quickly did the jealousy against the people of the house of Prophet Muhammad (s.) overcome you? By God, i will not speak another word with Umar until i meet God.” He said: “Then Abu Bakr went to her afterwards and interceded for Umar and asked for forgiveness. Afterwards, she was pleased with him.” [Sharh Nahj Al-Balaghah by Ibn Abi Al-Hadid, Volume 2 page 57]
قال عبد الحميد بن أبي الحديد المعتزلي: عن الشعبي قال: سأل أبو بكر فقال: أين الزبير؟ فقيل: عند علي وقد تقلد سيفه فقال: فقم يا عمر قم يا خالد بن الوليد انطلقا حتى تأتياني بهما فانطلقا فدخل عمر وقام خالد على باب البيت من خارج فقال عمر للزبير: ما هذا السيف؟ فقال: نبايع عليا فاخترطه عمر فضرب به حجرا فكسره ثم اخذ بيد الزبير فأقامه ثم دفعه وقال: يا خالد دونكه فأمسكه ثم قال لعلي: قم فبايع لأبي بكر فتلكأ واحتبس فأخذ بيده وقال: قم فأبى أن يقوم، فحمله ودفعه كما دفع الزبير، فأخرجه، ورأت فاطمة ما صنع بهما، فقامت على باب الحجرة، وقالت: يا أبا بكر، ما أسرع ما أغرتم على أهل بيت رسول الله! والله لا أكلم عمر حتى ألقى الله. قال: فمشى إليها أبو بكر بعد ذلك وشفع لعمر، وطلب إليها فرضيت عنه
Abd-ul-Hamid Ibn Abi Al-Hadid writes: “Our scholars, may God have mercy on them, be they former or later, be they from Basra or Baghdad, agree in their doctrine of faith that the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq is a valid and a legitimate oath of allegiance and it was not made by a text. Rather, it is an election that was confirmed by consensus.” [Sharh Nahj Al-Balaghah by Ibn Abi Al-Hadid, Volume 1 page 7]
قال عبد الحميد بن أبي الحديد المعتزلي: اتفق شيوخنا كافه رحمهم الله، المتقدمون منهم والمتأخرون، والبصريون والبغداديون، على أن بيعه أبى بكر الصديق بيعه صحيحه شرعية، وانها لم تكن عن نص وإنما كانت بالاختيار الذي ثبت بالاجماع
Let us come to the second information, which cannot be on page 507, because the 5th volume is only 440 pages!
Ibn Al-Maitham Al-Bahrani writes: “It is known among the followers of the people of the house (a.) and they agree that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) gave Fadak to Fatimah (a.) and they report this in various ways and among them what Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri said: “When the revelation took place: “And let the kinsman have his right.”(17:26) The Prophet Muhammad gave Fadak to Fatimah (a.). After Abu Bakr had seized the successorship, he insisted on taking it from her. Therefore, she sent someone to him to claim her inheritance from the messenger (s.) and she said: “He gave Fadak to me during his lifetime.” This was testified by Imam Ali (a.) and Umm Ayman (r.) and she found two witnesses in both of them. Therefore, because of the inheritance, he responded with a report that he told, saying: “We prophets do not inherit. What we leave behind are alms.” [Sharh Nahj Al-Balaghah, Volume 5 Page 98]
قال ابن الميثم البحراني رحمه الله: المشهور بين الشيعة والمتفق عليه عندهم ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله اعطاها فاطمه عليه االسلام، و رووا ذلك من طرق مختلفه: منها عن ابى سعيد الخدرى قال: لما انزلت وآت ذى القربى حقه اعطى رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله فاطمه عليها السلام فدك فلما تولى ابوبكر الخلافة عزم على اخذها منها. فارسلت اليه تطالبه بميراثها من رسول الله صلى الله وعليه و اله وتقول: انه اعطانى فدكا فى حياته واستشهدت على ذلك عليا عليه السلام وام ايمن فشهدا لها بها. فاجابها عن الميراث بخبر رواه هو: نحن معاشر الانبياء لا نورث فما تركناه فهو صدقه
Ibn Al-Maitham Al-Bahrani writes: “Thereupon Fatimah (a.) returned to her house and swore not to speak a word to Abu Bakr and she prayed supplications to God against him until death overtook her and her bequest was that he should not pray over her. Al-Abbas performed the prayer for her and she was buried during the night. It was said that Abu Bakr praised God when he heard her speech and asked for the blessing of His Messenger (s.). Then he said: “O best of wives and daughter of the best of prophets, i do not oppose the opinion of the Messenger and do nothing except by his command and the leader does not lie to his people. I adjusted it and was rough, so that you stayed away. Therefore God forgive us and you. However, i have already paid Ali the tools of the messenger, his mount and his shoe. As for the rest, i heard the Prophet Muhammad (s.) say: “We prophets do not inherit gold or silver, earth or bullion, but we inherit faith and wisdom and knowledge and the Sunnah.” Therefore, i did as i was commanded and as i heard.” She said: “The messenger (s.) has given it to me!” He said: “Who bears witness to this?” Then Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.) and Umm Ayman (r.) came and testified for her. Then Umar Ibn Al-Khattab and Abd-ur-Rahman Ibn Awf came and testified that the Messenger (s.) was involved.” Abu Bakr said: “I confirm it, O daughter of the Prophet and Ali confirms it and Umm Ayman confirms it and Umar confirms it and Abd-ur-Rahman confirms it. Therefore you are in possession of the one your father is in possession of. The Messenger (s.) used to take your strength from Fadak and distribute the rest and take a burden of it for the way of God. You are entitled to it by God and i will do exactly what he has done.” Therefore she became pleased with it and accepted his promise about it.” [Sharh Nahj Al-Balaghah, Volume 5 Page 100 – 101]
قال ابن الميثم البحراني رحمه الله: ثم رجعت الى بيتها و اقسمت ان لا تلكم ابابكر و لتدعون الله عليه، و لم تزل كذلك حتى حضرتها الوفاه فاوصت ان لا يصلى عليها فصلى عليها العباس و دفنت ليلا، و روي انه لما سمع كلامها احمد الله و اثنى عليه و صلى على رسوله، ثم قال: يا خيره النساء و ابنته خير الاباء و الله ما عدوت راى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله و لا علمت الا بامره، و ان الرائد لا يكذب اهله قد قلت فابلغت و اغلظت فاهجرت فغفر الله لنا و لك اما بعد فقد دفعت الة رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله و دابته و حذاه الى على عليه السلام، و اما ما سوى ذلك فانى سمعت رسول الله صلى الله و عليه و اله يقول: انا معاشر الانبياء لا نورث ذهبا و لا فضه و لا ارضا و لا عقارا و لا دار و لكنا نورث الايمان و الحمكهة و العلم و السنة، و قد عملت بما امرنى و سمعت. فقالت: ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله قد وهبها لى. قال: فمن يشهد بذلك. فجاء على بن ابيطالب و ام ايمن فشهدا لها بذلك فجاء عمر بن الخطاب و عبد الرحمن بن عوف فشهدا ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله يقسمها. فقال ابو بكر صدقت يا ابنه رسول الله و صدق على و صدقت ام ايمن و صدق عمر و صدق عبد الرحمن، و ذلك ان لك ما لابيك كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله ياخذ من فدك قوتكم و يقسم الباقى و يحمل منه فى سبيل الله، و لك على الله ان اصنع بها كما كان يصنع. فرضيت بذلك و اخذت العهد عليه به
Although Al-Bahrani mentions a story that Abu Bakr gave the daughter of the messenger (s.) the right to the inheritance, he and the people of the innovation confirm that Abu Bakr never complied with this right, let alone granted Fatimah (a.) a right of inheritance.
2nd question:
What was the relationship between Fatimah (a.) and Abu Bakr in accordance with the reports that reached the lovers of the Ahl-ul-Bait (a.)?
Answer:
Ali Ibn Ja’far reported that Imam Ali Ar-Rida (a.) said: “Fatimah (a.) is truly a martyr, and as for the daughters of the Prophets (a.), they do not grasp impurity.” Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlisi writes: “Authentic (Sahih).” Hashim Al-Hashimi writes: “The chain of transmission is authentic (Sahih).” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, volume 1 page 458 Hadith 2; Mir’at-ul-Uqul of Al-Majlisi, volume 5 page 315, Hiwar Ma’a Fadlillah of Al-Hashimi, page 101 Hadith 5].
محمد بن يحيى، عن العمركي بن علي، عن علي بن جعفر أخيه، أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: إن فاطمة عليها السلام صديقة شهيدة وإن بنات الأنبياء لا يطمثن. قال شيخ الإسلام محمد باقر المجلسي رضي الله عنه: صحيح وقال السيد هاشم الهاشمي: والسند صحيح
Abu Basir reported that Imam Ja’far As-Sadiq (a.) said: “Fatimah (a.) died on the third day in the month of the second Jumada, on a Tuesday in the 11th year after emigration and the reason for her death was Qunfudh, the servant of Umar, who by his command beat her with the handle of a sword until she miscarried with her son Muhsin (a.). Fatimah (a.) became seriously ill and did not call on any of those who had caused her suffering to join her. Abu Bakr and Umar used to ask Imam Ali (a.) to intercede with Fatimah (a.). So they asked Imam Ali (a.) and when both were allowed to enter her, they said: “How are you, O daughter of the Prophet?” Fatimah (a.) replied: “I am well, praise be to God, but did you two not hear the Prophet Muhammad (a.) say: “Fatimah is a part of me. Whoever causes her harm does harm to me, and whoever causes me harm does harm to God?” Both replied: “Yes, it is so.” Fatimah (a.) said: “By God, you both have caused me suffering! Then they disappeared while Fatimah (a.) was angry with both of them.” [Dala’il-ul-Imamah of At-Tabari, page 134 Hadith 43]
حدثني أبو الحسين محمد بن هارون بن موسى التلعكبري، قال: حدثني أبي، قال: حدثني أبو علي محمد بن همام بن سهيل رضي الله عنه، قال: روى أحمد ابن محمد بن البرقي، عن أحمد بن محمد الأشعري القمي، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن عبد الله بن سنان، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير، عن أبي عبد الله جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام، قال: وقبضت في جمادي الآخرة يوم الثلاثاء لثلاث خلون منه، سنة إحدى عشرة من الهجرة. وكان سبب وفاتها أن قنفذا مولى عمر لكزها بنعل السيف بأمره، فأسقطت محسنا ومرضت من ذلك مرضا شديدا، ولم تدع أحدا ممن آذاها يدخل عليها. وكان الرجلان من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وآله سألا أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليه أن يشفع لهما إليها، فسألها أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام، فلما دخلا عليها قالا لها: كيف أنت يا بنت رسول الله؟ قالت: بخير بحمد الله، ثم قالت لهما: ما سمعتما النبي يقول: فاطمة بضعة مني فمن آذاها فقد آذاني، ومن آذاني فقد آذى الله؟ قالا: بلى، قالت: فوالله لقد آذيتماني، قال: فخرجا من عندها عليها السلام وهي ساخطة عليهما

 

3rd question:
An innovator made the claim that the reports had a weakness in the chain of transmission and should be rejected for this reason.
Answer:
According to the Prophet (s.) and his successors (a.), the reports are authentic (Sahih). The infallible ones ordered their lovers and followers to accept reports that are in accordance with the Qur’an. The rejection of reports due to personal inclinations and assessments of individual transmitters and the replacement of them with one’s own interpretations and opinions is contrary to the Messenger (s.) and the owners of command (a.), to whom God made obedience a duty and is therefore not acceptable as a reason for rejection.
4th question:
Are there positive gradings of the chain of transmission?
Answer:
Ja’far Murtada Al-Amili writes: “The narration is authentic according to its chain (Sahih).” [Ma’sat-uz-Zahra’, volume 2 page 66]
وقال السيد جعفر مرتضى العاملي: سند الرواية صحيح
Abbas Al-Qummi writes: “The chain of tradition is authentic (Mu’tabar).” [Bait-ul-Ahzan, page 189]
وقال الشيخ عباس القمي: بسند معتبر
Al-Mamqani writes: “The report is strong according to its chain (Qawi).” [Mir’at-ul-Kamal, Volume 3 Page 267]
وقال الشيخ المامقاني: سندها قوي
Al-Mirza Jawad At-Tabrizi writes: “The chain of tradition is authentic (Mu’tabar).” [Sirat-un-Najah, Volume 3 Page 441]
وقال الميرزا جواد التبريزي: بسند معتبر
5th question:
Are there any good gradings for the narrators?
Answer:
[1.] Muhammad Ibn Harun reported about Harun Ibn Musa:
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Khu’i writes about Muhammad Ibn Harun Ibn Musa At-Talla’ukbari: “An-Najashi remembered him and included him in the mercy of God (Marhum).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 18 page 336 number 11971; Rijal-un-Najashi, page 79 number 189].
قال السيد الخوئي في محمد بن هارون بن موسى: عن النجاش ذكره، وترحم عليه
[2.] Harun Ibn Musa berichtete von Muhammad Ibn Hamam:

An-Najashi writes about Harun Ibn Musa At-Talla’ukbari: “Trustworthy (Thiqah).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 20 page 258 number 13273].

وقال النجاشي في هارون بن موسى: ثقة
[3.] Muhammad Ibn Hamam berichtete von Ahmad Al-Barqi:
An-Najashi writes about Muhammad Ibn Hamam Ibn Suhail: “He is the scholar of our companions and the foremost of them. He has a mighty rank (Azim).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 15 page 244 number 9992]
وقال النجاشي في محمد بن همام بن سهيل: شيخ أصحابنا ومتقدمهم، له منزلة عظيمة
[4.] Ahmad Al-Barqi berichtete von Ahmad Al-Ash’ari Al-Qummi:
An-Najashi writes about Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Barqi: “He himself was trustworthy (Thiqah). He narrates of the weak (Du’afa’) and he trusted the interrupted (Marasil)”. Abu Ja’far At-Tusi writes: “He himself was trustworthy (Thiqah), although most (not all!) narratives are of the weak (Du’afa’) and he trusted the interrupted (Marasil).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 3 page 49 number 861; Al-Fihrist of At-Tusi, page 62 number 65].
وقال النجاشي في أحمد بن محمد البرقي: وكان ثقة في نفسه يروي عن الضعفاء واعتمد المراسيل. وقال أبو جعفر الطوسي رحمه الله: وكان ثقة في نفسه، غير أنه أكثر الرواية عن الضعفاء واعتمد المراسيل
[5.] Ahmad Al-Ash’ari Al-Qummi reported from Abd-ur-Rahman:
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Khu’i writes about Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Ash’ari Al-Qummi: “Trustworthy (Thiqah).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 3 page 85 number 902].
وقال السيد الخوئي في أحمد بن محمد الأشعري القمي: ثقة
[6.] Abd-ur-Rahman reported on Abdullah Ibn Sinan:
An-Najashi writes about Abd-ur-Rahman Ibn Abi Najran: “Trustworthy (Thiqah).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 10 page 325 number 6346].
قال النجاشي في عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران: ثقة
[7.] Abdullah Ibn Sinan reported about Abdullah Ibn Muskan:
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Khu’i writes about Abdullah Ibn Sinan: “Trustworthy (Thiqah).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 11 page 224 number 6918].
وقال السيد الخوئي في عبد الله بن سنان: ثقة
[8.] Abdullah Ibn Muskan reported from Abu Basir:

An-Najashi writes about Abdullah Ibn Muskan: “Trustworthy (Thiqah).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 11 page 347 number 7173]

وقال النجاشي في عبد الله بن مسكان: ثقة
[9.] Abu Basir reported on Imam Ja’far As-Sadiq (a.)
An-Najashi writes about Abu Basir: “Trustworthy (Thiqah).” [Mu’jam-ur-Rijal of Al-Khu’i, volume 21 page 79 number 13599].

وقال النجاشي في يحيى بن القاسم، أبو بصير الأسدي: ثقة

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